About SWICCA data

A Climate Impact Indicator is an aggregate quantitative measure used to show the impact of climate change on complex environmental phenomena in terms of trends and variability. Estimates of essential climate variables (ECVs) and associated climate impact indicators may be derived from reanalysis, seasonal forecasts and climate projections as well as observations. The indicators are of different complexity. They can be based on  time-series of water and climate from projections, a combination of variables, or be composed using information from other disciplines such as socio-economics. SWICCA only provides indicators and ECV's that have been requested by Knowledge Purveyors in the case studies for climate adaptation in the water sector.

European patterns and relevance describes the future trends of climate change across Europe, and lists the showcases of climate impact adaptation that are relevant to each future trend. The metadata of climate impact indicators describes the SWICCA impact indicators and how they have been produced. All listed indicators are available for inspection and download at 'Maps, Graphs and Downloads'.

Metadata of Climate Impact Indicators

Metadata is given for datasets of different resolution (below). The catchments are on average, 215 kmacross Europe. Click on the links to read Metadata!

Note: Indicators with a * should be used with caution at this stage, as the spatial representation is uncertain.


Metadata of Seasonal Forecasts

Metadata is given for seasonal forecasts at the catchment scale (below). Click on the links to read Metadata!

River flowPrecipitationTemperature
River flow (monthly mean, catchment)Precipitation (monthly mean, catchment)Temperature (monthly mean, min and max, catchment)

European Patterns and Relevance

Northern Europe will become wetterMore precipitation, run-off and river flowsThere will be increased risk and incidence of river flooding, extreme floods and flash-floods. It can lead to economic losses, damages to buildings, infrastructure and mortality. Adaptation measures can mitigate these impacts.Climate change and flash floods
Warnings for extreme river floods
Assessing risk of river flooding
Southern Europe will become dryerLess precipitation, run-off and river flowsThere will be more and/or longer droughts and lower river flows. It will negatively impact agriculture, hydro power production, and tourism in some areas. There will be increased pressure on the water resources used in commercial industries (such as metallurgy) and agricultural sectors.Climate-proof Irrigation Strategies
Climate-proof river water balance
Extensive Drought Operations
Environmental flows and point source emissions
Water demand and supply of metallurgy sector
Snow season will be shorter and   peak snowmelt will arrive earlierIncreased flows in rivers fed by snowmelt in the spring and reduced flows in the summerThis is the case for rivers such as the Rhine, Rhone and the Danube. Reduced summer flows will impact water supply for hydropower production, cause delays to inland water transport and negatively impact agriculture, irrigation and tourism.Snow Effects on Water Availability
Hydro Power in a future climate
Inland Navigation (Rhine River)
Water temperature will increase throughout Europe  Increased water temperatures particularly in summerIncreases in water temperatures are the highest in summer due to a combination of higher surface temperatures and the lower summer flow in many European river systems. It will impact the quality of water, lead to changes in available habitats for aquatic species, and increases in algal blooms. These changes affect recreational water activities like swimming and fishing, as well as drinking water supplies.Drinking water in a future climate
Predicting change in lake ecosystems
Climate change effects on water quality
Future proof region and brewery chain


Which indicator should I use?

Different indicators are relevant when considering climate impact assessments in different sectors. Please find an overview of the possible climate change impact and relevant indicator for the following sectors:

Impact Models

The following hydrological models have been used to produce the climate impact indicators in SWICCA. Please find more information under these links: